magyar | srpski | english | romanes Friday 22 March 2019 

The history of the village

Kishegyes lies in the middle of Bácska, in the caldron surrounded by the Telecska hills. It forms a municipality together with Lovćenac (Szikics) and Bácsfeketehegy. It is one of the smallest municipalities of the Autonomous Province if Vojvodina, it has an area of only 181 km2. Its residents are Hungarians, Montenegrins, Serbians and other nationalities.

The village called Hegyes appears for the first time in a document in 1476, without naming the shire, when the estates of the Maróthi family in the region of the Tisza river were counted. In this list, there are: Szegegyház, Feketeegyház, Ket-Sopronya, Kutas, Nagyhegyes and Kishegyes. It can be concluded from the position of the other villages that Nagyhegyes and Kishegyes were beyond doubt situated in the place of what is today Kishegyes. However, there is a document from 14 years before, which mentions a farmstead called Hegyesthurol. On 16 February 1462 King Mátyas gave the settlements listed in the document as a present to his mother, Erzsébet.

The history of the village can be traced back until these dates but the land has another story to tell. In 1906-1907 finds from the great migrations turned up.

The tithe list from 1522, although the register of Hegyes is missing, is very telling. According to it, serfs paying tithe were Johannes Hegesy from the settlement Devecser (north of what is today Srbobran / Szenttamás) and Blasius Hegesy from Betheren (Béter is most probably near what is today Temerin).

The destruction of the village started in 1514. The riot of György Dózsa required not only material damages, demolitions, driving away of cattle, but also a huge number of human victims.

All this was followed by the defeat of Mohács. After the battle, the victor, the general of sultan Soliman I withdrew between the Danube and the Tisza rivers. The institutional Turkish subjection started after the fall of Buda, in 1541. The village became totally desolated after the battle of Mohács, but there is no information on when exactly. The fact of the desolation is recorded in the Turkish assessment of taxes of the Szeged nahije in 1553-54. The tax assessment followed the rebellion in Szeged against the Turks in March 1552. After the initial success of the rebels the inhabitants of Röszke fled to Hegyes from the Turkish troops, where the tax assessment was done.

The later Turkish tax assessment registers mention Kishegyes in the nahije of Szabadka with 18 houses to pay taxes in 1580-82 and 1590-91, and 17 in Nagyhegyes in 1580 and 23 houses in 1590. In 1652 the inhabitants of Hegyes paid taxes to Ferenc Wesselényi.

According to the land appropriation introduced in Garamszentbenedek from 1655 the two Hegyes villages become the possession of count Adam Wesselényi. By the end of the 17th century both of them were completely destroyed. In 1703 the shire is mentioned as a place of small villages from the Turkish period. In 1721 the two villages are mentioned as “puszta” (desolated shires) with regard to certain border arrangements which among other things list the farmsteads of the chamber. One mentions them under the names Kis Higyos and Nagi Higios, the other as Parvahygos and Magnohygios. Soon the chamber leases out the fields of the two desolated villages.

The survey of Antal Cothmann in 1763 had a great impact on the resettlement of Kishegyes and Nagyhegyes. In his survey he found the two villages suitable for settlement. The resettlement was conducted by Pál Kruspér, chamber land-steward. Soon after the announcement of the resettlement of Kishegyes, Catholic Hungarians from Szentandrás, Békés County applied to settle down there if they are given certain freedoms. In March 1769 the chamber land-steward assigned the puszta of Kishegyes as their place of residence. The settlers arrived in the same month. As a commemoration of this, the day of Kishegyes has been celebrated on 21 March since 1994.

The greatest event of the history of the village is related to the Hungarian War of Independence. On 14 July 1849 the Hungarian army fought its last victorious battle here under the command of General Richárd Guyon against the troops of general Jelačić.

© 2007